Low-density sandwich materials have been used in composite materials since the 1940s to increase bending strength and weight. The sandwich structure with the same load capacity is several times lighter than the solid layer structure. The sandwich material can reduce the cost per unit volume, reduce noise and vibration, increase heat resistance, fatigue resistance and fire resistance. The mechanism of the sandwich material is to transfer the shear force from the skin layer to the inner layer, so that the two skin layers can be stable under static and dynamic loads, and absorb impact energy to provide anti-destructive properties.
The core materials for composite sandwich structures are: rigid foam, honeycomb and balsa wood.
1 rigid foam mainly includes polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), polyetherimide (PEI) and acrylonitrile-styrene (SAN or AS), polymethacrylimide (PMI), hair Foamed polyester (PET) and the like.
2 Honeycomb sandwich materials are glass cloth honeycomb, NOMEX honeycomb, cotton honeycomb, aluminum honeycomb and the like. The honeycomb sandwich structure has high strength and good rigidity, but the honeycomb has an open-cell structure, and the bonding area with the upper and lower panels is small, and the bonding effect is generally not good.
3 balsa core material is a natural product. The common balsa core in the market is mainly produced in plantations in South America. Due to climatic reasons, balsa wood grows especially fast in the local area, so it is much lighter than ordinary wood, and its Fibers have good strength and toughness and are particularly suitable for use in composite sandwich structures.
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