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Automotive application basalt fiber
Writer:admin    Released:2019-05-22 16:49:12    Type:【L】【M】【S

First, the application of lightweight materials in automobiles


The use of lightweight materials in automobiles can effectively reduce the quality of automobiles.


1, high light steel


In recent years, the application range of high-strength steel in automobiles has gradually widened, and it has become one of the fastest growing lightweight metal materials in the automotive industry, accounting for a considerable proportion of the market. Its anti-collision and corrosion resistance are applied to the body, chassis, suspension and steering components of automobiles. In 2001, Chery Automobile Co., Ltd. cooperated with Baosteel Group Co., Ltd. to apply 262kg of high-strength steel plate on the prototype car to reduce the body weight by 12%, which played a good role in car lightweighting. Plates and pipes are used as two types of high-strength steels, which are a good substitute for the application of ordinary steel and general cast iron in body parts. However, China's application of high-strength steel in automobiles has insufficient independent development capability, which makes the development of new products dependent on foreign advanced technology and equipment, and the variety is single. The application range of high-strength steel in China in automobiles needs to be further expanded.


2, non-ferrous metals


At present, aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy are used in the body system, chassis and powertrain system as backlighting applications for automotive body lightweight materials. Among them, aluminum accounts for about 8.13% of the earth's crust, which is the most abundant metal element. According to the statistics of automobile production guilds, before 2000, the amount of aluminum alloy used in automobiles showed an increasing trend, and almost 90% of the cars were in use. Although magnesium is the lightest metal material, its price is much higher than that of aluminum. The production technology is limited to a certain extent, and its application in automobiles is relatively small. Ford used to produce an AIV (pictured below) with a Canadian aluminum company that uses aluminum alloy 270KG, which is 200KG lighter than conventional steel. The high cost of the aluminum alloy and the poor welding performance of the process can not be applied to the automobile in large quantities during the period.


3, non-metallic materials


Other non-metallic materials such as plastics are one of the most promising potentials in the automotive industry due to their light weight, resistant to candlestick and easy processing. The application of automotive plastics has experienced the development process from the interior parts to the outer parts, including the instrument panel, glove box cover, ceiling, door inner panel, sub-dashboard, seat and various guards, etc. External components such as body outer panel, rear spoiler, bumper, wheel cover, front and rear fenders, engine intake pipe and valve cover. Plastics laid the foundation for the development of lightweight vehicles, but from the perspective of protecting the environment and recycling, the application of plastics in automobiles is a big problem for the world.


Second, the application of basalt fiber in automobiles


The basalt fiber is a continuous fiber which is formed by high-speed drawing of a platinum-bismuth alloy drawing and draining plate after being melted at 1450 ° C - 1500 ° C, and the strength is equivalent to that of glass fiber. Pure natural basalt fiber is generally brown in color and somewhat golden in color. Basalt fiber is a new type of inorganic environmentally-friendly green high-performance fiber material. It is a basalt stone composed of oxides such as silica, alumina, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, iron oxide and titanium dioxide. Drawn. Basalt continuous fiber not only has high strength, but also has many excellent properties such as electrical insulation, corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance. In addition, the production process of basalt fiber determines that the waste generated is small, the environmental pollution is small, and the product can be directly degraded in the environment after being discarded, so that it is a veritable green and environmentally friendly material. China has listed basalt fiber and carbon fiber, aramid fiber and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene as the four major fibers to be developed, and realized industrial production. Basalt continuous fibers have been widely used in fiber reinforced composites, friction materials, shipbuilding materials, insulation materials, automotive industry, high temperature filter fabrics and protection.


1. Application of basalt fiber in the skeleton of automobile soft instrument panel


The car dashboard skeleton is a common vehicle component that combines functionality, safety, comfort and interior. Its main function is to install a variety of indicating instruments and ignition switches in the cab. It can install a variety of indicating instruments and ignition switches in the cab in time, so that the driver can be promptly given. Master the driving status of the vehicle. At the same time, it also carries out one of the automotive interior parts for air-conditioning systems, electronic sound systems, lighting systems, etc. Consumers have put forward higher requirements in terms of comfort, aesthetics, light weight and low odor. Today, the material of the car dashboard skeleton should have a relatively good answer.


 


The basalt fiber composite material is used as the soft instrument panel skeleton, which has high strength, high flexural modulus, better fluidity, good impact resistance, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, short production cycle, high productivity, large design freedom and easy The complex parts can be formed once, and the thickness of the instrument panel can be reduced accordingly. The quality is relatively reduced, and the quality can be reduced by about 25%. The automotive soft instrument panel skeleton requires materials that are resistant to moisture, heat and rigidity, and are not easily deformed. The basalt fiber composite material fully meets the requirements, its toughness is increased by 120%, the rigidity is increased by 60%, and the heat distortion temperature is increased by 15 °C. And has better heat resistance.


The key also solves the previous multiple component dashboard assembly and becomes the current overall module. According to the current research of Korean modern car companies, the thickness of the instrument panel is reduced from 3.3-4.2mm to 2.5-2.9mm by using the basalt fiber through the vacuum blister process, so that the quality of the instrument panel is reduced from 3.2KG. 2.3KG also avoids the driver and co-pilot from being shocked when not wearing a seat belt.


2. Application of basalt fiber in the front end bracket of automobile


The front-end module acts as a front-end to the car and functional integration. In general, the front-end module may not include six major components, namely front-end brackets (system-integrated platforms), cooling air-conditioning systems (including dynamic air intake grilles), signal and lighting systems, body protection and exterior structural systems, sensors and driver assistance. The system and the pedestrian protection system, for better setup, are determined by the functionality of the front-end module bracket. Therefore, the front end bracket is made of basalt fiber and polypropylene (pp) by integral molding, which is characterized by corrosion resistance, impact resistance, dimensional stability, high mechanical properties, and most importantly, lighter weight and weight loss. Up to 20%-40% and improved assembly efficiency. At present, all major auto brands are actively researching and developing, making it one of the main raw materials for the automotive industry, especially for heavy-duty vehicles that need to withstand higher loads.


3. Application of basalt fiber in automobile door module


The structure of the door is composed of two modules: the inner panel assembly and the outer panel assembly. Previously, the engineering plastics for automobile doors were close to 10%, which is also an important way to achieve lightweight. A body made of basalt fiber reinforced composite material achieves a 25% reduction in mass compared to a steel body. Its strength and creep resistance are significantly improved, and the amount of heat warpage is reduced, and the overall sealing performance of the door is enhanced. The basalt fiber reinforced composite material breaks the integrated height of the integrated door and also promotes the modular development of the door. LANXESS uses a hybrid injection molding process to inject Tepex directly into the injection mold. For industrial production applications, the one-shot injection molding process completely eliminates the use of forming dies and successfully completes functional integration, saving costs for the enterprise.


4. Application of basalt fiber in automobile body


The world's first car was produced in 1886. It has been more than 100 years since now, and customers are increasingly demanding lightweight cars. However, the car's body is the primary condition for determining lightweight. The strength and rigidity of the basalt fiber are sufficient to meet the needs of the automobile body structure. It can be used as an inorganic non-metallic material for the automobile cover, and has good anti-collision performance while reducing the weight of the automobile. In addition, the processing components are integrated and modularized, the installation cost is low and the investment is small, which effectively solves the costs of the manufacturer for traditional body coating and environmental protection treatment. In 2009, the Geneva Motor Show Germany EDAG depot launched a new light car light concept car (pictured below) that looks like a large loose egg. It uses basalt fiber material to make the body, which is 30 less than the car made of fiberglass. The quality of % can also be recycled 100%, and the pollution to the environment is minimized. It is said that it can also be used in an environment of -260 to 820 °C. The concept car is powered by an in-wheel electric motor. The lithium-ion battery inside the body, combined with the light weight of the car, has a maximum life of 150km.


Research on the edak vehicle engineering laboratory shows that the basalt fiber reinforced material body weighs 516kg, while the steel body is 820kg, which greatly improves energy utilization and driving performance. A Triaca 230, an environmentally friendly concept car designed by the Italian Roller Team RV, made its debut at the German RV. The Triaca RV represents the “self-propelled RV that reduces the impact on the environment through technology”. The quality of the environmentally-designed core material, basalt fiber wallboard, has been reduced by 40%. The Roller Team RV is designed to be eco-friendly. Designed to reduce quality and environmental impact.


5. Application of basalt fiber in automobile spring


Cars are often mounted on car suspensions with leaf springs for the purpose of damping. Since the end of the coil and the end of the leaf spring are linked by rivets, the production process is complicated, the production efficiency is low, the corresponding product cost is high, the strength of the link between the ear and the leaf spring is low, and the leaf spring works for a long time, and the ear is used. The joint between the leaf springs is prone to fatigue fracture, shortening the life of the leaf spring, the rigidity of the entire leaf spring is poor, and the bending deformation is easy when the bearing capacity is too large. In order to solve the above problems, Jilin Tongxin Basalt Technology Co., Ltd. produced basalt fiberboard springs, which are light-weight leaf springs with high strength and rigidity, only 3KG, and elastic modulus of more than 600,000 times. The existing leaf springs on ordinary cars can reach 10kg, which is very heavy, with a modulus of elasticity of 150,000. Manufacturers have revealed that they have already cooperated with a German auto company in research and development, and the parts they have produced have been loaded with test vehicles and are currently performing well.


6. Application of basalt fiber in automobile muffler materials


The muffler has an important role in reducing the exhaust noise of the engine and allowing the high-temperature exhaust gas to be discharged safely and efficiently. As an important part of the exhaust pipe, the muffler bears the smooth discharge, low resistance and sufficient strength. Under the condition of high temperature exhaust at 550~780 °C, the muffler can ensure that it does not damage or lose the noise elimination effect within the specified driving range of the car. This requires that the sound absorbing material for the production of the automobile muffler not only has the sound absorbing function but also has outstanding high temperature resistance.


The muffler is the main means of solving car noise. Manufacturers have mature methods in the production process and structure of muffler. In the next few years, the raw materials of muffler have become the development trend and focus of the industry technology. At present, the price of raw materials for traditionally produced mufflers is constantly rising. Due to the fierce competition in the production of muffler, its price is declining. The price of the muffler for the OEM is also decreasing, which makes the profit of the muffler enterprise unit. The reduction is a big test for the muffler company. Therefore, researchers are constantly looking for new materials to replace the previously used steel materials.


The heat resistance of basalt fiber is better than that of high temperature resistant quartz glass fiber. At 450 ° C, the breaking strength is still maintained at about 80%; at 350 ° C, the tensile strength can be maintained above 75%. This indicates that the continuous basalt fiber has perfect temperature resistance, and its heat-resistant oxidation performance is more obvious than other fibers. It becomes a high-temperature resistant material and its strength hardly changes after long-term low-temperature-185 °C liquid nitrogen medium. It is enough to prove that it is an effective low temperature insulation material. Basalt fiber has good sound insulation effect and can be used as sound insulation material. The density of basalt fiber material is 15kg/m3; the thickness is 30mm; the performance data of the separation wall surface and material spacing is 0.0mm: frequency range is 1200~7000Hz; normal sound absorption coefficient is 0.86~0.99 .


7. Application of basalt fiber in friction reinforcement materials for automobiles


Reinforcing fiber is an important component of automotive friction materials, and the wear performance of friction materials depends on the fiber. Steel fiber, mineral fiber, glass fiber, organic fiber and high temperature resistant polymer fiber are the main fibers of the current friction reinforcing material for automobiles. However, when using the above fibers, there are some problems in different degrees. For example, asbestos dust is seriously polluted by the environment and is one of the inducers of human cancer. Now it has been restricted for human health; steel fiber is corrosive. Easy to stick or damage dual materials, high noise; carbon fiber production of reinforcing materials excellent performance, but its production process is complex and costly, is not conducive to widespread promotion; other fiber reinforced materials, some poor wettability, some pollution surroundings.


Basalt fiber has the characteristics of high strength, good thermal stability, no damage to the duality, good wear and stability, and stable friction coefficient, and the price is moderate. The material density of basalt fiber is 2.6g/cm3, the tensile strength is higher than that of glass fiber, and the wear resistance of basalt fiber reinforced friction material is higher than that of asbestos fiber, steel fiber and glass fiber. Through the performance test of basalt chopped fiber reinforced brake pads, it is considered to have the characteristics of high temperature friction coefficient, low thermal decay and low braking noise, and is suitable as the main reinforcing material for friction materials.


The "thermal decay" phenomenon that is common in traditional automobile brakes, basalt fiber reinforced materials can effectively solve this problem and reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents. Spain's GALFER has experimentally verified and developed the 1052 series motorcycle brake pads produced from basalt fiber as the main reinforcing fiber. Therefore, the application of basalt fiber to the friction-enhancing material is beneficial to increase the service life of the friction material of the automobile, improve the high temperature resistance of the friction material, and solve many disadvantages of the existence of the current friction material. The high-temperature resistant composite material made of basalt fiber not only becomes a friction reinforcing material for automobile brakes and clutches, but also contributes to the industrialization of smart cars and improves the safety performance of automobiles.


Third, the conclusion


In summary, under the supervision of current environmental pollution prevention and control, strengthening the application of this new material of basalt fiber in automobiles can not only be described in the conclusion, but also strengthen the basalt fiber under the supervision of current environmental pollution prevention and control. The application of new materials in automobiles can not only solve problems, strengthen government support and social investment, and strive to improve the level of lightweight technology of automobiles.

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