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Characteristics of automotive composite materials
Writer:admin    Released:2018-05-31 14:44:22    Type:【L】【M】【S
Generally called composite materials, it is composed of reinforced materials such as fiber and two or more materials with different properties, such as substrate (matrix), etc., through various technological means.It with fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), fiber reinforced metal (FRM), metal - plastic laminated material, has the features of light weight, high strength and good stiffness, the composite material applied in auto parts is very popular.
Composite materials are anisotropic heterogeneous materials with the following characteristics compared with other materials:
1) higher than strength and specific modulus.Specific strength and specific modulus refer to the ratio of material strength and modulus to density.The higher the modulus, the more rigid the parts.Therefore, it is of great importance to high speed structural parts or transportation tools that need to reduce self-weight.
2) the interface between the fiber and the matrix in the fiber reinforced composites can effectively prevent the expansion of fatigue cracks, and the external load is borne by the reinforcing fibers.The fatigue strength limit of most metal materials is 30% ~ 50% of their tensile strength, while that of composite materials can reach 60% ~ 80%.
3) adding a small amount of short-cut carbon fiber into thermoplastic plastics can greatly improve its wear resistance, and the increase times can be several times as many as before.For example, PVC is 3.8 times as strong as carbon fiber and 3 times as much as teflon.Polypropylene is 2.5 times larger than itself.The polyamide is 1.2 times larger than itself.Polyester is twice as big as itself.Choose proper plastic and steel composite can be used as wear-resistant objects, such as bearing materials.The sliding bearing can be made from polytetrafluoroethylene (or polyformaldehyde) as the surface layer, porous bronze and steel plate as the inner layer.
4) excellent chemical stability.Fiber reinforced phenolic plastics can be long-term use in acid medium of chlorine ion, with glass fiber reinforced plastic, can be made resistant to strong acid, salts, esters, and some of the solvent chemical pipes, pumps, valves, container equipment, etc.Such as alkali - resistant fiber and plastic composite, can also be used in strong - alkali media.Alkali - resistant fiber can be used to replace steel and cement composite.
5) good resistance to high temperature ablation.Fiber reinforced composite materials, in addition to the lower glass fiber softening point (700 ~ 900 ℃), the melting point of other fibers (or softening point) are generally above 2000 ℃, using these fiber and metal matrix composite material, composed of high temperature strength and modulus were increased.For example: after using carbon fiber or fiber reinforced boron, 400 ℃ can keep the room temperature strength and modulus of basic level.Carbon fiber is also used to strengthen nickel metal, which not only reduces the density, but also improves the high temperature performance.Because FRP has very low thermal conductivity and can withstand super high temperature instantaneously, it can be used as ablative material.
6) good technology and design capability.Adjust the shape, arrangement and content of reinforced material, can meet the strength and stiffness components such as performance requirements, and can be a molding material and components, reduce the number of parts, fasteners and connectors, greatly improve the material utilization ratio.

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